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HomePress ReleaseEIN PresswireSpace and Time do not fuse into SpaceTime continuum.

Space and Time do not fuse into SpaceTime continuum.


SpaceTime is not a 4 dimensional continuum; and this blunder makes a scientific revolution inevitable and a paradigm shift in science imminent.

Biology is predicated on Chemistry, which in flip is predicated on Physics. Space and Time underlies Physics and Cosmology, and are essentially the most elementary ideas conceivable in total Science.”

— Subhajit Waugh.

INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA, July 21, 2023/EINPresswire.com/ — Einstein and Minkowski merged the three dimensions of house and one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional manifold known as SpaceTime. This results in a block universe view by which there is no such thing as a distinction between the previous, the current and the long run, and all three of them concurrently coexist. This view is in stark distinction to our on a regular basis expertise, in addition to with an astonishing variety of observations in the entire of science. In truth, a whole e-book has been written to spotlight this obvious mistake [The arrow of time: the quest to solve science’s greatest mystery]. The four-dimensional SpaceTime continuum view has been challenged by Mr. Subhajit Waugh from RRCAT, Division of Atomic Power, Authorities of India.

SpaceTime is the sector by which every little thing occurs, and it’s also the material which makes the universe. A correct understanding of SpaceTime idea is essential not only for Physics and Cosmology, however for total Science. Totally different flavors of SpaceTime are described by completely different metrics just like the ‘Minkowski SpaceTime metric (MST metric)’, the ‘Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric (FLRW metric)’, the ‘Schwarzschild metric’ and so on. An excellent start line to know what SpaceTime actually is can be the flat SpaceTime metric (MST metric). The MST metric: ds2 = (i.c.dt)2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2= (i.c.dt)2 + dr2 (which explains all of particular relativity, together with time dilation, size contraction, and relative simultaneity) is not an announcement for 4D SpaceTime continuum. That mistake occurred as a result of our incomplete data concerning the true nature of imaginary numbers (#Link1). An imaginary signal lies hidden inside the MST metric, which discriminates the house dimensions from time dimension and turns the metric (+,+,+,-) as an alternative of (+,+,+,+). Einstein’s mistake was to deal with time and house precisely equally (which definitely is not the case). In contrast to actual numbers, imaginary quantity (i) can’t be used as an unbiased axis (that is defined intimately within the paper whose hyperlink is offered beneath). An unbiased axis means a further dimension. Imaginary quantity is required just for inaccessible dimension, and does not create a further dimension. Imaginary quantity is required solely by a trapped creature (i.e. required by a flatlander).

One other main motive behind the wrong mathematical interpretation of the spacetime equations (e.g. Minkowski and FLRW metrics) has been the wrong interpretation of the relative simultaneity implied by these metrics. The idea of the block universe (launched by Minkowski) is because of defective understanding of relative simultaneity. Scientists have mistakenly used the analogy of a loaf of (4D) bread that may be sliced at completely different angles. The logic is that when observers are in movement, then the spacetime loaf can be minimize at an angle, which signifies that the “now” of 1 observer can be considerably completely different from that of one other. Every observer can have their very own aircraft of simultaneity. Observers transferring at completely different relative velocities have completely different planes of simultaneity. This loaf of bread analogy results in the Rietdijk–Putnam paradox (Andromeda paradox), which does not assist/vindicate the point of view, however solely expose it as ridiculous. A way more applicable analogy can be the printer cartridge analogy. Though the cartridge can solely transfer again and forth on a 1D steel rod, it might probably nonetheless print any slanted line (at any angle of inclination) on 2D paper as a result of the paper strikes. The identical is true if the 2D paper is held nonetheless and the steel rod strikes up (or down) whereas the cartridge strikes sideways.

MST metric is confirmed to be true in numerous experiments, however is definitely a mathematical assertion for a (dynamic) 3D hypersurface, transferring with a velocity c within the 4th dimension in an embedding 4D hyperspace. That is straightforward to show. One can take any observer, situated wherever in 3D house, and transferring with any potential velocity. Relative to itself, the observer does not transfer via house (dr=0). Therefore (placing dr=0), the above MST metric turns into: ds/dt = i.c

Subsequently, each arbitrary body of reference reaches the identical conclusion. The presence of i clearly exhibits that everybody is transferring with the speed of sunshine (c) in a path perpendicular to all three x,y and z axis (which is an not possible path for each observer trapped inside 3D house hypersurface. Why not possible path? Properly, let that observer simply attempt to level their finger in direction of the long run or in direction of the previous. That path is perpendicular to each path they will level). The lack of know-how about i=sqrt(-1) had led scientists to conclude that the speed is imaginary (and therefore discouraged from digging deeper). They merely concluded that our spacetime could be very peculiar (hyperbolic), with out questioning why this peculiarity arises in spite of everything.

[Digressing slightly from the central topic of SpaceTime, it may be noted that the MST metric can perfectly describe a small section of an expanding (hyper) balloon universe, where c is the radial increment/expansion velocity of our universe (as dictated by MST metric, or even the FLRW metric). The temporal part of both MST and FLRW metric are identical. Unbelievably, scientists have been completely ignoring what the temporal parts of SpaceTime metrics are telling. Using this balloon model, and taking the age of our universe equal to the currently accepted value of 13.8 billion years, the calculated Hubble constant value (71.002 km/s/Mpc) matches very well with accepted values (69.8 km/s/Mpc and 74 km/s/Mpc determined by two separate methods). Since the crucial SpaceTime equation and Hubble’s law both tells the same story, it should give us great confidence that our universe is an expanding (hyper) balloon (#Link2). Since our universe is expanding at a constant rate rather than accelerating (as currently believed), we do not need dark energy, since we do not have to account for acceleration. This model of universe is superior to the presently accepted ‘Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC)’. A Nature Astronomy (2020) paper had claimed with 99% confidence level that our universe is closed. Another paper claims betting odds of 2000 ∶ 1 against an open, flat and infinite universe, thus mortally wounding the SMC. And more importantly, this model unifies General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, the two bitterly conflicting pillars of modern Physics (#Link3).]

A direct consequence of constructing the above correction (4D spacetime continuum versus dynamic 3D hypersheet) is that one dimension obtained freed up (which we have been reserving unnecessarily). That’s as a result of if we ignore the movement of the hypersheet, then, what Einstein had assumed as a 4D construction, seems to be a 3D one (inside a 4D embedding hyperspace). Kaluza’s miracle of acquiring Maxwell’s equation along with Einstein’s subject equations appeared to precise a heavy worth: a fifth dimension was required as an embedding house. Really, 4 dimensions are enough, and we get electromagnetic phenomena as a bonus. In truth, the implications of releasing up a dimension is far more profound, and solves the requirement of a fifth dimension popping up in every single place in physics, however stringent restrict on the variety of dimensions set at 4 from experiments and observations merely do not permit that.

MST metric exhibits that relativity is all about being trapped contained in the wall of the increasing (hyper) balloon, however being free to maneuver alongside the wall. The query is “What is that this 3D hypersurface wall of the balloon universe fabricated from?” The reply is: It’s fabricated from (scalar) fields, and particles, that are mere resonances/excitations in that subject. That’s simply the core assertion of stunningly correct Quantum Area Idea (QFT) which varieties the muse of Normal Mannequin of Particle Physics. Thus, one will get a glimpse of the unity between relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Since each star and planets and even people are finally made up of particles (that are mere excitations/resonances within the 3D fields), subsequently, each little bit of matter is eternally trapped within the 3D hypersheet, and is getting dragged with it because the (hyper) balloon universe expands. The radius of the universe is an not possible path for people (which does not even exist for trapped beings like us). The radial improve of the universe seems as passage of time for us.

GRAVITY AND DARK MATTER: Normal Relativity stays our greatest principle of gravity. Nonetheless the best cosmological challenges in the present day like darkish matter, black gap singularity (resulting in ‘info loss’ paradox) and so on. are mere relics of our misunderstanding of Normal Relativity (GR). The Schwarzchild metric (which is an actual answer to the Einstein subject equations that describes the gravitational subject outdoors a spherical mass), can be a dynamic 3D hypersurface (transferring with a velocity c within the fourth dimension), identical to the Minkowski SpaceTime metric. The Flamm paraboloid is an correct mathematical illustration of the Schwarzchild metric (opposite to widespread perception) if the dynamic nature is taken into account. Therefore, the rubber membrane/sheet mannequin (which is used to show Normal Relativity in colleges and faculties) ought to be taken actually somewhat than as an analogy. The dynamic nature of the 3D field-particle hypersurafce causes the stream of time (which seems to differ with the energy of the gravity subject as a result of various slopes of the Flamm paraboloid at completely different distances from the huge object). A touch of the (opposing) results of this slope on spatial stretching scale and gravitational time dilation lies hidden in plain sight within the Schwarzchild metric. The dimensions components within the temporal and radial a part of the metric are detrimental inverse of one another. This kind of detrimental inverse relation is seen within the slopes (m1 and m2) of two perpendicular strains (m1.m2 = –1), which suggests the decision of the slope into cos and sine parts. Picturing gravity as stretching of 3D hypersurface somewhat than warping of 4D spacetime gives a key to unlocking the nonetheless mysterious elements of gravity. A greater understanding of gravity has immense affect on the topics of darkish matter, cosmic filament construction, and cosmic evolution. The wall of the balloon universe behaves identical to a rubber membrane. The distinction is that it’s a 3D hypersheet somewhat than a 2D rubber sheet. Huge objects like stars and planets are embedded like skinny cash inside this wall itself (when considered from the 4th dimension), and produces stretching of this wall alongside the 4th dimension. This stretching is seen by trapped creatures like us as warping of 4D SpaceTime cloth itself, and provides rise to gravity as Normal Relativity (GR) insist. For the reason that 3D hypersheet is a single steady sheet, and since all large objects close by stretch this sheet in a single path, subsequently the collective stretching will get enormously amplified. The resultant elevated stretching bends gentle rays enormously (via gravitational lensing) and provides misunderstanding of big quantities of Darkish Matter halo. This magically solves all darkish matter associated points. Black gap singularity is simply the insider viewpoint of a trapped creature. Proper on the middle of the bare singularity, time passes on the similar price as in deep house, far-off from any gravitational sources.

WHAT IS TIME? Opposite to widespread perception, time itself is not the fourth dimension, however emerges as a result of movement alongside fourth house dimension. That is self-evident since time does not possess the unit of distance (meter or yard or mile) which might have given it the standing of a real (house or spatial) dimension. At its coronary heart, the idea of ‘time length’ is shockingly easy. It’s the childishly easy system which is taught in elementary colleges worldwide:

[Distance (covered) = Velocity X Time. Therefore, Time = Distance/Velocity.]

Mr. Waugh’s principle has sparked intense debate in scientific group, and differs from earlier theories of time. Traditionally, Newton’s view of time was that point is common, and is similar in every single place. It ticks at a relentless price, and time passes equally and exactly the identical for everyone. Nonetheless, Einstein confirmed that point is versatile, and time and house inevitably combine collectively, which could be fantastically summarized in a single equation generally known as Minkowski SpaceTime Equation (MSTE), also called the MST metric. Einstein’s and Newton’s views are inherited by the 2 pillars of contemporary physics (Normal Relativity and Quantum Mechanics), and the mismatch has brought about the apparently insolvable disaster known as ‘drawback of time’. However it is just ‘seemingly not possible’ drawback, and each ‘absolute common time’ and ‘relative time’ can co-exist peacefully. (See References beneath).

The thriller of time is shrouded by two (least understood) ideas: imaginary quantity, and increased dimension. Imaginary quantity is required just for an inaccessible increased dimension. The presence of imaginary signal (i) clearly exhibits that the 3D house (which might accommodate as much as three mutually perpendicular axes x, y and z) is definitely a 3D hypersheet embedded in a 4th dimension which is inaccessible to people.

To know the superior energy of time, one want to know the divine energy that comes with the next dimension. Since people can’t totally visualize 4 dimensions, an analogy have to be used. One might think about the floor of a flat desk (representing two dimensions) on which an clever ant is crawling outdoors a circle drawn on the desk. Contained in the circle is a tiny dot. There’s completely no approach for the ant to achieve the dot with out crossing the circle. However a (divine) human can contact the dot from above the desk with out ever touching the circle. In the same approach, a divine being accessing the fourth dimension can take away an individual’s coronary heart or liver with out ever reducing the pores and skin. That’s precisely why time flows even within the deepest core of our planet (with out bothering methods to penetrate 1000’s of miles of stable rocks surrounding the earth’s core). Time stream additionally controls the radioactive decay price deep inside an atom. That is not magic, however just like accessing each level on the desk high from above.

The ant is simply conscious of two mutually perpendicular x and y axes. The z axis which is so apparent to people does not even make sense to that ant. For representing any distance (d), or velocity (v) alongside the z-axis, the ant has to make use of imaginary numbers (i) with out actually bothering to look at what the imaginary signal (i) really signify.

About Mr. Subhajit Waugh

Mr. Subhajit Waugh is a Scientific Officer at RRCAT, Division of Atomic Power, Authorities of India. He obtained his Grasp’s diploma in Physics from the Nationwide Institute of Expertise, Rourkela, in 2003, the place he was the topper of his batch. In 1996, he was awarded the celebrated NCERT Nationwide Expertise Scholarship. Mr. Waugh appeals all his expensive viewers to look at and SHARE this (non-scientific) video of his created United Nations Anthem (UN Anthem).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgUchABJ0EQ

Additional References:

Is every little thing we all know concerning the form and measurement of our universe, and the way it works, improper?
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7343171

Quantum Mechanics and Normal Relativity are totally suitable, and have a standard origin: the increasing (hyper) balloon universe.
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6811311

Form and measurement of our universe: difficult the Normal Mannequin of Cosmology
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7619290

#physics #science #house #astronomy #universe #nature #sciencefact #sciencenerd #cosmology #scienceart #sciencememe #sciencejokes #scienceiscool #scientist #quantummechanics #generalrelativity

[Mr. Waugh dedicates this to his mother (late) Mrs. Basanti Waugh, his father (Shri Lalji Vittal Waugh), and his ‘Jathamosai’ (uncle).]

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Mr. Subhajit Waugh appeals the viewers to look at and share the United Nations Anthem video (with lyrics). The World wants the UN now greater than ever earlier than.

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